PKIS v2.0 A clinical tool for identifying important pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions
| 1. Accepted major perpetrators | 2. Rejected perpetrators | 3. Unclassifiable | 4. Full table |

echinacea

  • echinacea is a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9.
  • echinacea is neither an inhibitor or inducer of CYP2D6 and CYP3A.
  • CYP1A2CYP2C9CYP2D6CYP3A
    Weak inhibitorscimetidine [1]
    clarithromycin [2]
    diltiazem [3]
    echinacea [4]
    erythromycin [2]
    mexiletine [5]
    moclobemide [6]
    norfloxacin [7]
    propranolol [8]
    roxithromycin [2]
    ticlopidine [9]
    verapamil [10]
    amiodarone [11]
    cimetidine [12]
    co-trimoxazole [13]
    disulfiram [14]
    echinacea [4]
    fluvastatin [15]
    fluvoxamine [16]
    ketoconazole [17]
    lovastatin [11]
    metronidazole [18]
    sertraline [19]
    simvastatin [11]
    sulfadiazine [20]
    voriconazole [21]
    zafirlukast [a]
    amiodarone [22]
    amitriptyline [23]
    aspirin [24]
    celecoxib [25]
    cimetidine [26]
    darifenacin [b]
    desvenlafaxine [27]
    diltiazem [28]
    diphenhydramine [29]
    escitalopram [30]
    felodipine [31]
    fluvoxamine [32]
    gefitinib [33]
    hydralazine [34]
    imatinib [35]
    interferon alpha-2b [36]
    ketoconazole [37]
    methadone [38]
    metoprolol [39]
    nortriptyline [40]
    oral contraceptives [41]
    oxprenolol [39]
    pindolol [39]
    propranolol [39]
    ranitidine [42]
    risperidone [43]
    ritonavir [44]
    saw palmetto [45]
    sertraline [46]
    timolol [39]
    venlafaxine [47]
    alprazolam [48]
    amiodarone [49]
    aspirin [24]
    azithromycin [50]
    bicalutamide [51]
    cimetidine [52]
    co-trimoxazole [53]
    cyclosporine [54]
    fluvoxamine [55]
    isoniazid [56]
    maraviroc [57]
    oral contraceptives [58]
    ranitidine [59]
    roxithromycin [60]
    simvastatin [61]
    No apparent change in clearanceamodiaquine [62]
    aspirin [24]
    omeprazole [63]
    risperidone [43]
    amodiaquine [62]
    darifenacin [a]
    modafinil [64]
    omeprazole [65]
    prednisone [66]
    St John's wort [67]
    amodiaquine [62]
    dexamethasone [68]
    echinacea [4]
    ginko-biloba [69]
    maraviroc [70]
    omeprazole [71]
    smoking [72]
    cimetidine [73]
    echinacea [4]
    finasteride [74]
    fluoxetine [55]
    gatifloxacin [75]
    methylprednisolone [76]
    paroxetine [77]
    pioglitazone [61]
    saw palmetto [45]
    sertraline [78]
    tenofovir [53]
    tipranavir/ritonavir [79]
    venlafaxine [80]

    Footnotes and References

    a.assessment based on product information accessed via the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia Product and Consumer Medicines Information website ( https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/ebs/picmi/picmirepository.nsf/PICMI?OpenForm&t=PI&q=&r=https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/ ).
    b.systemic preparations not available in Australia or New Zealand.
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