| 1. Accepted major perpetrators | 2. Rejected perpetrators | 3. Unclassifiable | 4. Full table |
ginko-biloba is neither an inhibitor or inducer of CYP2D6.
|No apparent change in clearance||amodiaquine  |
Footnotes and References
|1.||Wennerholm A, Nordmark A, Pihlsgard M, Mahindi M, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL. Amodiaquine, its desethylated metabolite, or both, inhibit the metabolism of debrisoquine (CYP2D6) and losartan (CYP2C9) in vivo. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2006; 62: 539-46.[PubMed]|
|2.||McCune JS, Hawke RL, LeCluyse EL, Gillenwater HH, Hamilton G, Ritchie J, Lindley C. In vivo and in vitro induction of human cytochrome P4503A4 by dexamethasone. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2000; 68: 356-66.[PubMed]|
|3.||Gorski JC, Huang SM, Pinto A, Hamman MA, Hilligoss JK, Zaheer NA, Desai M, Miller M, Hall SD. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2004; 75: 89-100.[PubMed]|
|4.||Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane L, Sipkes L, Chavin KD. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2003; 23: 576-81.[PubMed]|
|5.||Abel S, van der Ryst E, Rosario MC, Ridgway CE, Medhurst CG, Taylor-Worth RJ, Muirhead GJ. Assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of maraviroc, a novel CCR5 antagonist, in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2008; 65: 5-18.[PubMed]|
|6.||Caraco Y, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJJ. Differences between white subjects and Chinese subjects in the in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450s 2C19, 2D6, and 3A by omeprazole. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1996; 60: 396-404.[PubMed]|
|7.||Yue QY, Tomson T, Sawe J. Carbamazepine and cigarette smoking induce differentially the metabolism of codeine in man. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4: 193-98.[PubMed]|
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